the Effect of Diaphragmatic Breathing Technique on the Level of Anxiety in the Third Trimester Pregnant Women

Ketut Resmaniasih, Anies Anies, Hari Peni Julianti, Onny Setiani, Hanna Yuanita


Anxiety commonly occures among pregnant women, especially those who are at the third trimester. The waiting period until the delivery and birth may increase the anxiety level, thus an intervention is needed to overcome the problem. This study aims to determine the effect of diaphragmatic

breathing techniques on the level of anxiety in the third trimester pregnant women.

This was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test control group design. Eighteen pregnant women who visited the local government clinic in Palangkaraya after the 28th until the 37th week of pregnancy were consecutively selected as sample and assigned as control and the intervention group. The intervention group was given diaphragmatic breathing technique to be inhaled through nose in every four enumeration, holding up and exhale breathing in every six enumeration for 30 minutes per day during seven days. The control group received only routine prenatal care. The research instruments of anxiety measurement were using a modified Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) instrument. The data was analyzed with t-test by using SPSS software. The results of t-test analysis showed that the intervention group had the p-value of 0.005(p < 0.05), and the control group had the p-value of 0,168 (p > 0.05). The sum of two t-test

analysis had the p value of 0.002 (p < 0.05).

The diaphragmatic breathing technique performed in the prenatal care for women in the third

trimester could lower the anxiety level. 

Full Text:



Ali NS, Azam IS, Ali BS, Tabbusum G, Moin SS. (2012). Frequency and associated factors for anxiety and depression in pregnant women: a hospital-based cross-sectional study. ScientificWorldJournal. 653098. doi: 10.1100/2012/653098. Epub 2012 May 2.

Aprillia Y. Hipnostetri: Rileks, nyaman, dan aman saat hamil & melahirkan. Jakarta: Gagas Medika. 2010, p. 80-81

Bobak, L. (2004). Buku Ajar Keperawatan Maternitas. Edisi keempat. Jakarta:EGC.Varney, H. (2007). Buku Ajar Asuhan Kebidanan, vol.I, ed.4. Jakarta:EGC. Bab 21;492-504.

Chang SB, Kim HS, Ko YH, Bae CH, An SE. (2009). Effects of Abdominal Breathing on Anxiety, Blood Pressure, Peripheral Skin Temperature and Saturation Oxygen of Pregnant Women in Preterm Labor. Korean J Women Health Nurs. Mar;15(1):32-42.

Figueiredo B, Conde A. (2011). Anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3- months postpartum. Arch Womens Ment Health. Jun;14(3):247-55. doi: 10.1007/s00737-011-0217-3. Epub 2011 Apr 9.PMID:21479759[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Iskandar M. Health Triad (Body, Mind and System). Elek Madia Komputindo, Jakarta. 2010.37,123.

Purwaningsih, Wahyu, Fatmawati, S. (2010). Asuhan Keperawatan Maternitas. Jojakarta: Nuha


Valenza, M.C. et al. (2014). Effectiveness of Controlled Breathing Techniques on Anxiety and

Depression in Hospitalized Patients With COPD: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Respiratory Care

February 1, vol. 59 no. 2 209-215.

Yu, W.J., Song, J,E. (2010). Effects of abdominal breathing on state anxiety, stress, and tocolytic

dosage for pregnant women in preterm labor. J Korean Acad Nurs. Jun;40(3):442-52.

Zope SA, Zope RA. (2013). Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health. Int J Yoga. Jan;6(1):4-10. doi:



  • There are currently no refbacks.