Contribution Black Carbon (Bc) in Pm2.5 From Rice Straw Open Burning in District Cianjur, West Java, Indonesia

Hafida Wati, Puji Lestari, Asep Sofyan

Abstract


Field burning of rice straw, common practice in Cianjur, West Java, about 58 percents of farmers burning straw in the field after harvesting. Open burning in the paddy field is a common way to eliminate rice residues after harvesting. During rice harvesting seasons, open burning of rice residues in the field releases a large amount of Black Carbon (BC). It has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the BC emitted in PM2.5 from rice straw field open burning in Districts Cugenang, Cianjur, West Java, Indonesia. Samples of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) from open burning of rice straw were collected at several locations in District Cugenang, from June through October 2015. The samples were collected using a minivol air sampler. Black carbon was analyzed using an EEL smoke stain reflectometer. The average of PM2.5 during the sampling period of open burning rice straw for eight varieties (Mekongga, Ciherang, Hibrida, Sarangue, Inul, Pandan wangi, Inpari and Cintanur) was 847.8, 501.9, 361.9, 891.3, 1099.3, 684.2, 264.7, and 517.3 microg/m3, respectively. The average of PM2.5 from chamber simulation for eight varieties was 842.01, 1248.7, 929.7, 1997.3, 916.3, 1176.1, 1641.8, 488.71 and 1156.45, respectively. The average of BC concentration for open burning was 44.85, 75.46, 83.09, 61.65, 68.66, 65.85, and 52.54 μg/m3, respectively. The average of BC concentration for chamber simulation for eight varieties was 139.4, 163.2, 141.5, 107.9, 132.3, 106.1, 137.2, 69.9, and 124.69 μg/m3, respectively. The ratio of the average BC concentration compared to the PM2.5 concentrations showed that BC comprises about 11.9 % of the fine particulate matter collected at all sites on field burning experiment and about 14.7 % for simulation in the chamber. Our results provide useful information for the development of local emission factors for Black Carbon from open burning of rice straw in Cianjur. And paved the way

for a more accurate estimate of emissions that have an impact on climate in Indonesia 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Andreae, M.O., Merlet, P., (2001).. ―Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning‖. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15, 955-966.

Christian, T.J., Kleiss, B., Yokelson, R.J., Holzinger, R., Crutzen, P.J., Hao, W.M., Saharjo, B.H., Ward, D.E., (2003). ―Comprehensive laboratory measurements of biomass-burningemissions: 1. Emissions from Indonesian, African, and other fuels ―. Geophysical Research 108, 4719-4732.

Garivait, S and Coauthors, (2013). ―Monitoring and Assessment of Biomass Open Burning in Agricultural Area/Lands in Thailand‖, Pollution Control Department, 60 pp.

Indonesia Second National Communication Under The United Nation framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), (2010). Jakarta.

Kanokkanjana, K., Cheewaphongphan,P., and Garivait,S (2011). ― Black Carbon Emission from Paddy Field Open Burning in Thailand‖. 2nd International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology. IPCBEE vol.6, IACSIT Press, Singapore

Kim Oanh, N.T., Thuy, L.B., Tipayarom, D., Manandhar, D.R. Manandhar, D.R., Pongkiatkul, P., Simpson C.D. (2011). ― Characterization of Particulate Matter Emission from Open Burning of Rice Straw‖. Atmospheric Environment 456 (2011) 483-502.

Lee . Y.C, Lam .Y.F., Khlmann, G., Wenig. M.O. Chan K.I. (2013). ―An integrated approach to identify the biomass burning sources contributing to black carbon episodes in Hong kong‖. Atmospheric Environment Vol 80 pp 478-467

Permadi,D,A., ―Assessment of biomass open burning emissions Indonesia and potential climate forcing impact‖. Atmospheric Environment Vol 28 pp 250-258

Reid, et al., (2004). ―A review Biomass burning emissions, part II: Intensive Physical properties of biomass burning particles‖. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion 4, 5135-5200

Santoso, M., Lestiani D.D., Hopke, P.K (2012). ―Atmospheric Black Carbon in PM 2.5 in Indonesian Cities ―. Journal of the Air &waste 63:9,1022-1025.

Sillapapiromsuk, S., Chantara.S., Tengjaroenkul,U., Prasitwattanaseree. (2013). ―Determination of PM 10 and its ion composition emitted from biomass burning in the chamber for estimation of open burning emissions‖. Chemospher (2013) xxx

Tiparayom, D, Kim Oanh, N.T., (2007).‖ Effect from open rice straw burning emission on air quality in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region ―. Journal of Science Asia 33 (3), 339-345


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.