Phytochemical Screening And Bioactivity Of Piper Nigrum Seed Extract Against Sitophilus Oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Mohammad Ilzamunnabil, Eep Saefuloh, Yuenyong Vanichpakorn, Patcharaporn Vanichpakorn

Abstract


The rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most serious insect pest of rice seeds throughout the world. Currently, use of natural compounds from plant extracts has been suggested as alternative method for insect control to conventional synthetic insecticides. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, acetone and ethanol extracts of Piper nigrum seed were screened for secondary metabolites constituents. All extracts at concentration of 1% were also evaluated for their feeding/contact, fumigant toxicity and repellent activity against adults of S. oryzae. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids and terpenoids in petroleum ether extract. Alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins were found in acetone and ethanol extract. Ethyl acetate extract contained terpenoids and tannins. Furthermore, petroleum ether extract showed the strongest feeding/contact toxicity against S. oryzae with mortality of 100% within 5 days after treatment while the other extracts had moderate feeding/contact toxicity with mortality ranging from 60.00-75.00% at 7 days. All extracts exhibited low fumigant toxicity to the insect pest with mortality of 25.00-45.00% at 7 days. However, the 4 extracts showed high repellent activity against S. oryzae. The highest mean repellency of 91.00% was observed in ethyl acetate extract followed by petroleum ether extract (88.00%) and acetone extract (85.00%). The lowest mean repellency of 67% was obtained in ethanol extract. These result indicated that petroleum ether extract of P. nigrum seed has potential for integrated pest management programs of S. oryzae population.


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